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República Federativa do Brasil, Federative Republic of Brazil

Last modified: 2010-10-08 by ian macdonald
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[Brazil] 7:10   image by Joseph McMillan, 22 August 2006
Flag adopted by Law No 8421 of 11 May 1992; basic design by Decree No 4 of 19 November 1889

See also:

Legal Description of the Brazilian Flag

From Law No 5700 of 1 September 1971:
Section II. About the national flag

Art. 3 - According to the constitutional dispositions, the national flag was adopted by Decree No 4, of 19 November 1889, later modified by Law No 5443 (Annex No 1) of 28 May 1968.

Sole paragraph. On the National flag is represented, rendered artistically, a view of the sky over Rio de Janeiro, with the constellation "Cruzeiro do Sul" [Southern Cross] at the meridian, imagined as seen by an observer placed on the vertical line including the zenith of that city, from outside the sphere seen on the flag.
(From the booklet "Os Símbolos Nacionais", published by the Presidência da República, Brasília, 1986, on the 165th year since independence and 98th since establishment of the republic).
Pier Paolo Lugli, 19 January 1998

In the Brazilian Government's website is the full text of the law on the Brazilian flag and other symbols.
Guilherme Simões Reis, 6 October 1999

In Album des Pavillons, 2000 the construction details are given as (51+54+210+54+51):(51+144+210+144+51) which looks correct.
Željko Heimer, 21 March 2001

Law on the National Flag: details of construction

[in English below.]

ART. 5 - A feitura da Bandeira Nacional obedecerá às seguintes regras

  1. Para cálculo das dimensões, tomar-se-á por base a largura desejada, dividindo-se esta em 14 (quatorze) partes iguais. Cada uma das partes será considerada uma medida ou módulo M.
  2.  O comprimento será de vinte módulos (20 M).
  3. A distância dos vértices do losango amarelo ao quadro externo será de um módulo e sete décimos (1,7 M).
  4. O círculo azul no meio do losango amarelo terá o raio de três módulos e meio (3,5 M).
  5. O centro dos arcos da faixa branca estará dois módulos (2 M) à esquerda do ponto do encontro do prolongamento do diâmetro vertical do círculo com a base do quadro externo (ponto C indicado no Anexo número 2).
  6. O raio do arco inferior da faixa branca será de oito módulos (8 M); o raio do arco superior da faixa branca será de oito módulos e meio (8,5 M).
  7. A largura da faixa branca será de meio módulo (0,5 M).
  8. As letras da legenda Ordem e Progresso serão escritas em cor verde. Serão colocadas no meio da faixa branca, ficando, para cima e para baixo, um espaço igual em branco. A letra P ficará sobre o diâmetro vertical do círculo. A distribuição das demais letras far-se-á conforme a indicação do Anexo número 2. As letras da palavra Ordem e da palavra Progresso terão um terço de módulo (0,333 M) de altura. A largura dessas letras será de três décimos de módulo (0,3 M). A altura da letra da conjunção E será de três décimos de módulo (0,3 M). A largura dessa letra será de um quarto de módulo (0,25 M).
  9. As estrelas serão de 5 (cinco) dimensões: de primeira, segunda, terceira, quarta e quinta grandezas. Devem ser traçadas dentro de círculos cujos diâmetros são: de três décimos de módulo (0,3 M) para as de primeira grandeza; de um quarto de módulo (0,25 M) para as de segunda grandeza; de um quinto de módulo (0,2 M) para as de terceira grandeza; de um sétimo de módulo (0,143 M) para as de quarta grandeza; e de um décimo de módulo (0,1 M) para a de quinta grandeza.
  10.  As duas faces devem ser exatamente iguais, com a faixa branca inclinada da esquerda para a direita (do observador que olha a faixa de frente), sendo vedado fazer uma face como avesso da outra.

ART. 5 - The construction of the national flag will conform to the following rules.

  1.  To calculate the dimensions, take as a basis the desired width [of the hoist] and divide it into 14 (fourteen) equal parts. Each of these parts will be considered a measure or module, M.
  2. The length [of the fly] will be 20 modules (20 M).
  3. The distance from the vertices of the yellow lozenge to the edge of the field will be one and seven tenths modules (1.7 M).
  4. The blue circle in the middle of the lozenge will have a radius of three and a half modules (3.5 M).
  5. The center of the arcs of the white band will be two modules (2 M) to the left of the point where the extension of the vertical diameter of the circle meets the lower edge of the field (point C indicated in Annex number 2).
  6. The radius of the lower arc of the white band will be eight modules (8 M); the radius of the upper arc of the white band will be eight and a half modules (8.5 M).
  7. The width of the white band will be one-half module (0.5 M).
  8. The letters of the motto "Ordem e Progresso" will be in green. They will be located in the middle of the white stripe, with equal white spaces above and below. The letter P will be placed on the vertical diameter of the circle. The distribution of the other letters will be as indicated in Annex number 2. The letters of the word "Ordem" and of the word "Progresso" will be one-third of a module (0.333 M) in height. The width of these letters will be three-tenths of a module (0.3 M). The height of the letter of the conjunction "E" will be three-tenths of a module (0.3 M). The width of this letter will be one quarter of a module (0.25 M).
  9. The stars will be in 5 (five) dimensions: of the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth sizes. They are to be traced within circles whose dimensions will be: three-tenths of a module (0.3 M) for the first size; one-quarter of a module (0.25 M) for the second size; one-fifth of a module (0.2 M) for the third size; one-seventh of a module (0.143 M) for the fourth size; and one-tenth of a module (0.1 M) for the fifth size.
  10. The two sides [of the flag] will be exactly equal, with the white stripe inclined from left to right (from the point of view of an observer facing the flag), it being forbidden to make one side as a mirror-image of the other.

translated by Joseph McMillan, 29 August 2005

Designers of the Flag

Benjamin Constant, a member of the Provisional Government who prepared the decree, credited Professor Raimundo Teixeira Mendes, president of the Positivist Apostolate of Brazil, with the idea of the new flag. Texeira Mendes collaborated with Dr. Miguel Lemos and Professor Manuel Pereira Reis, chairman of astronomy at the Polytechnic School, and the design was executed by the painter Décio Vilares.
Joseph McMillan, 12 April 2001

Brazilian flag historians attribute the original lozenge design, adopted for the Kingdom of Brazil in 1822, to a French painter and designer named Jean-Baptiste Debret, who was active in Brazil between 1816 and 1831. It is thought that the design was inspired by the lozenges on pre-1812 Napoleonic military colors.
Joseph McMillan, 3 March 2005

The "EFE" agency, 18 August 2010, reports the theft of the original painting of the Brazilian flag.

"The original design painting of the Brazilian flag, a 19th century canvas by painter Décio Villares, was stolen from the church where it had been kept in Rio de Janeiro, O Estado de Sao Paulo newspaper said. It is thought that the thieves may have stolen the picture taking advantage of the powerful storm that lashed the region last April and caused part of the roof of the Humanity Temple, home of Rio's Positivist Church, to collapse. [...]

The Brazilian flag, adopted in 1889 by the new republican regime, was designed by the positivist philosophers Raimundo Teixeira Mendes and Miguel Lemos and painted for the first time by Villares. The original design of the flag is composed of a green rectangle, a yellow rhombus and, in its centre, a blue sphere in which are 21 stars, one for each Brazilian state in 1889, and the slogan 'Order and Progress'. [...]"

A photo of the stolen painting can be seen on this blog:

The painter Décio Villares (1851-1931) studied in Italy and France, where he was introduced to republicanism and positivism. Back to Brazil in 1881, Villares produced several paintings, sculptures and caricatures. After his death, his window set up a blaze in his workshop, destroying most of his paintings.écio_Villares
Ivan Sache, 24 August 2010

Ratio of the Flag

I borrowed an original 1939 Flaggenbuch recently, and I read 96:132 (=24:33, or 7.27:10) as the ratio for the Brazilian flag. Looking more closely at the construction scheme, it started from the lozenge in the center, which had a proportion of 2:3 (72:108). The distance to the upper and lower edges and to the hoist and fly was equal all around (12 units each), resulting in the unusual ratio of 7.27:10.
Marcus Schmöger, 20 March 2003

Federal Decree-Law no. 4545, of 31 July 1942, provided for the 7:10 ratio, stipulating that (a) the desired width of the flag should be divided into 14 equal parts, each of the parts being considered one module; and (b) the length would be 20 (twenty) modules.
Joseph McMillan, 3 April 2003

Symbolism of the Flag

The Colors

The colors green and yellow refer to the Royal Houses of Bragança (Emperor Pedro I) and Habsburg (Empress Leopoldina). The celestial sphere on the republican standard is a portrait of the sky of Rio de Janeiro on the night of 15 November 1889.
Felipe Flores Pinto, 23 February 1998

According to the Piraquê Club website (, no longer on line, on 7 September 1822, after demanding "Independence or Death," Prince Regent Pedro (later Emperor Dom Pedro I) removed the Portuguese blue-and-white cockade from his hat and exclaimed, "From now on we will have another ribbon-knot (laço), green and yellow. These will be the national colors." On 18 September, Pedro signed three decrees that were the first acts of independent Brazil. The second decree created a new national cockade: "The Brazilian national bow-knot (laço), or cockade (tope) will be composed of the emblematic colors: green for spring and yellow for gold...."
Joseph McMillan, 15 April 2001

A site called Bandeiras do Brasil says that the Ministry of Culture specifies Pantone 356 CV (green), 3945CV (yellow), and 286CV (blue) as the official colors of the Brazilian flag. The problem is that the webmaster seems to cite Flags of the World as the source of this, and we have no such information.

Among official sites, there are a couple that give Pantone and/or CMYK values for the "mark" of the Federal Government, used on publications and websites, stating that the colors are to be the same as those used in the national flag. These sources do not agree completely, so I'll cite that of the Presidency for the Pantones. The Ministry of Development, Industry, and External Commerce (MDIC) uses the same Pantone values and gives CMYK equivalencies.
Green 355 100-0-100-0
Yellow Yellow 0-10-100-0
Blue 280 100-70-0-20

Celestial Sphere

I think it interesting that the Brazilian flag has a celestial globe while the Portuguese one has a flag with an instrument on it used to represent the celestial sphere. Could the Portuguese flag have influenced Brazil's choice of flag design?
James Dignan, 6 October 2003

According to Christian Fogd Pedersen, The International Flag Book, (1979), pp 217-8, "The symbol of the scroll and the celestial globe were inspired by the armillary sphere in the Arms of Portugal". I am not sure about this reference to the "arms" since I'm not familiar with the pre-1910 arms of Portugal (other than those used on the 1830 flag). The armillary sphere has, however and of course, been a symbol used on Portuguese flags since at least the 17th Century.
Christopher Southworth, 6 October 2003

Yes. They both trace their common ancestry to the flag of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve, which featured an armilliary sphere as supporter for the Portuguese coat of arms of the time, and which in turn was apparently used earlier as a symbol of the caravelles that sailed for Brazil. So yes, our [Portuguese and Brazilian] common history is reflected in our flags.
Jorge Candeias, 7 October 2003

The influence is not direct but via the pre-republican Brazilian flag. Like the modern Portuguese flag, the imperial Brazilian flag also had an armillary sphere on it as the central charge in the imperial coat of arms. One White Band

According to (page no longer available), the white band across the celestial sphere has been the object of much speculation, with some saying it represents the ecliptic, others the celestial equator, and others the belt of the zodiac. In fact, the white band has nothing to do with the celestial sphere, but merely provides a place to inscribe the motto, Order and Progress, which is attributed to the French positivist philosopher Auguste Comte, who had many followers in Brazil, including Professor Teixeira Mendes, who conceived the basic design of the flag.
Joseph McMillan, 12 April 2001

The Stars

Unlike the stars on the American flag, each particular star on the Brazilian flag represents one particular state.
Herman De Wael, 20 January 1998

For details on the constellations on the flag and the correspondence between the stars and the states, see Astronomy of the Brazilian Flag.

Flagpoles in Brazil

Brazilian military regulations provide for the staffs on which colors are mounted to be covered in spiral striped cloth, green and yellow for the national flag, other color combinations for unit flags. This custom may well be copied by civilians as well. Many flagpoles in Brazil (the big outdoor kind) are also painted with spiral stripes in the predominant colors of the flag flown on the pole--green and yellow for the national flag, blue and white for the Rio state flag, etc.
Joe McMillan, 21 September 2004

Coat of Arms

located by Michael Raney, 2 June 2004

The page entitled Simbolos Nacionais--Bandeira, Hino, Armas e Selo Nacional (National Symbols--Flag, Anthem, Arms, and National Seal] at the official Brazilian government site quotes in full the laws governing all the symbols. That for the arms says, translated into English:

The National Arms were instituted by Decree No. 4 of 19 November 1889, with alteration made by Law No. 5443 of 28 May 1968 (Annex No. 8) The making of the National Arms should conform to the proportions of 15 units of height by 14 of width and take into account the following provisions:
I - The round shield will be composed of a sky-blue [azul-celeste] field containing five silver [prata] stars arranged in the form of the Southern Cross, with the bordure [bordura] of the field outlined in gold and charged with silver stars equal to the stars existing in the National Flag (Modification made by Law No. 8421 of 11 May 1972).
II - The shield will be placed on a star parted gyronny of ten pieces, green [sinopla] and gold, bordered by two strips, the inner red [goles] and the outer gold.
III - All placed on a sword in pale, pommelled gold, hilted blue [blau], except for the center part, which is red [goles] and contains a silver star, all upon a crown formed by a branch of coffee fruited on the dexter side and another of flowering tobacco on the sinister side, both in proper colors, tied blue [blau], the whole assembled on a splendor of gold, the contours of which form a star of 20 points.
IV - On a blue [blau] scroll, placed over the pommel of the sword, inscribed in gold the legend República Federativa do Brasil in the center, and also the phrases 15 de Novembro on the dexter end and de 1889 on the sinister end.
The name on the scroll was changed from Estados Unidos do Brasil by Law No. 5389 of 22 February 1968.
Joseph McMillan, 12 June 2001

Knowing how (non-)promptly the stars on the national flag were changed with the change of the actual number of the states in Brazil, I am wondering how well the coat of arms followed the changes. This is of particular interest since it is the main feature on the presidential flag, too. So that flag was changed (I guess) as many times as the coat of arms.
Željko Heimer, 21 March 2001

In the Süddeutsche Zeitung of 28 June 2002 (p. 12) there is a report on the Brazilian coat of arms. Evidently they are currently discussing a change in the coat of arms, more specifically the tobacco leaves on the sinister side. Senator Jefferson Peres (PDT) wants to replace the unhealthy tobacco with a twig of guaraná.
Marcus Schmöger, 29 June 2002

Nossa Bandeira (J. Redig, 2009)

Title: Nossa Bandeira: formação, usos, funcionalidade (in English: Our Flag: formation, uses, functionality)
Medium: book
Main author(s): Joaquim Redig
Edition (publisher: place): Frahia: Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
Language: Portuguese
Edition date: 2009 (1st ed.)
Catalogue codes: ISBN 978-85-85989-27-9
Pages: 324
Format: 210×297(×20) mm (Horizontal A4)

As the title implies, the book is divided in three main sections (all in full color): formation, uses, functionality. The formation part tells a very detailed history of the Brazilian National Flag, from the times of the Portuguese colonial flags to independence, imperial flags, and the Republic. The proposals for a republican flag are also explained, and the evolution of the finally adopted National Flag of Brazil is shown in full details. The second part deals with the uses of the Brazilian national flag. This includes information about official use, but also the people's use, and the way the flag is shown in advertisement and merchandising in Brazil. In the third part (functionality) the author makes a very detailed analysis of the graphic elements and colors of the flag. He explains how these elements work. He also proposes which changes could be done in the flag, to make the design work better.

The author Joaquim Redig is a very important industrial designer from today's Brazil. This is reflected in the whole book, that has a very deep and detailed graphic analysis of the Brazilian National Flag.
Francisco Gregoric, 4 September 2010